[1] The word "chocolate" entered the English language from Spanish in about 1600. Pure, unsweetened chocolate, often called "baking chocolate", contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Approximately 65% of the fat in milk chocolate is saturated, mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid, while the predominant unsaturated fat is oleic acid (table). Without fermentation, the beans would be too astringent and bitter to enjoy. [34] Another proposed etymology derives it from the word chicolatl, meaning "beaten drink", which may derive from the word for the frothing stick, chicoli. At this point, the chocolate process differs depending on the recipe and formulation of the manufacturer. It is not toxic and can be safely consumed. [14] Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875, Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could easily be molded into smooth shapes. With the depletion of Mesoamerican workers, largely to disease, cacao production was often the work of poor wage laborers and African slaves. A conche is a container filled with metal beads, which act as grinders. It is also known to last for two years if stored properly. White chocolate is a chocolate confection, pale ivory in color, made from cocoa butter, sugar, milk solids and sometimes vanilla. [110] Despite the expanding reach of the chocolate industry internationally, cocoa farmers and labourers in the Ivory Coast are unaware of the uses of the beans; the high cost of chocolate products in the Ivory Coast make it inaccessible to the majority of the population, who do not know what it tastes like. Next, the shell of each bean is removed to extract the nib. [11] The Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards,[12] and used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink.[13]. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate (covering). An investigation in high-priced chocolate", "Chocolate industry avoids collapse as genome published", "Chocolate is on track to go extinct in 40 years", "Criollo Chocolate: Efficient Food of the Gods", "Sensational Chocolates: Discover the Intense Robust flavor of 100% 'Grand Cru' Chocolate", "Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity", "2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food", "Division 4: Cocoa and Chocolate Products", "Conching: Crucial Step in Chocolate's Flavor and Texture? [40] Chocolate and cocoa are under preliminary research to determine if consumption affects the risk of certain cardiovascular diseases[90] or cognitive abilities. [47] The two main jobs associated with creating chocolate candy are chocolate makers and chocolatiers. Producers of high-quality, small-batch chocolate argue that mass production produces bad-quality chocolate. [14] After the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, chocolate was imported to Europe. Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries, particularly Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply. In fact, it’s a fascinating but labor-intensive process that will make you appreciate every sweet bite. In its basic form it is composed of cacao powder, cocoa butter, and some type of sweetener such as sugar; however, modern chocolate includes milk solids, any added flavors, modifiers, and preservatives. [46] According to the WCF's 2012 report, the Ivory Coast is the largest producer of cocoa in the world. which are coated in chocolate. In June 2007, in response to consumer concern about the proposal, the FDA reiterated "Cacao fat, as one of the signature characteristics of the product, will remain a principal component of standardized chocolate. The Spruce Eats uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience and for our, The 8 Best Chocolates for Valentine’s Day. [75][76][77] Bloom can be reversed by retempering the chocolate or using it for any use that requires melting the chocolate. The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Cacao trees are small, understory trees that need rich, well-drained soils. After roasting, the beans are transferred to a winnower that removes the shells of the beans and leaves the “nibs”—the essence of the cocoa bean that’s full of cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Yet it is a drink very much esteemed among the Indians, wherewith they feast noble men who pass through their country. Pair milk chocolate with a cup of your favorite hot or iced coffee or tea for a sweet afternoon break. [96], Excessive consumption of large quantities of any energy-rich food, such as chocolate, without a corresponding increase in activity to expend the associated calories, can cause weight gain and possibly lead to obesity. [58], The dried beans are then transported to a chocolate manufacturing facility. Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to "inoculate" the liquid chocolate with crystals (this method uses the already formed crystals of the solid chocolate to "seed" the molten chocolate). Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter and vanilla are added. Made from 100% cocoa liquor and bitter unless mixed with other ingredients. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, and sugar. Vegetable oils and artificial vanilla flavor are often used in cheaper chocolate to mask poorly fermented and/or roasted beans. [78], Chocolate is generally stored away from other foods, as it can absorb different aromas. [61] Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients. [55], The most commonly grown bean is forastero,[53] a large group of wild and cultivated cacaos, most likely native to the Amazon basin. The finest, plain dark chocolate couverture contains at least 70% cocoa (both solids and butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. To make chocolate, cocoa farmers crack open the pods, scoop out the seeds, ferment them and dry them. Dark chocolate contains up to 2-3 times more flavanol-rich cocoa solids than milk chocolate. Cocoa, highly concentrated powder made from a paste prepared from cocoa beans of the cacao tree and used in beverages and as a flavoring ingredient. The earliest signs of use are associated with Olmec sites (within what would become Mexico’s post-colonial territory) suggesting consumption of chocolate beverages, dating from the 19th century BC. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. If the chocolate is low quality, the pulverized presscake will be mixed with vegetable fats, sugar, and flavorings to become substandard chocolate. [83] However, during cultivation and production, chocolate may absorb lead from the environment (such as in atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria). [53], In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter, in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes. Chocolate liquor is blended with the cocoa butter in varying quantities to make different types of chocolate or couverture. [14] Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade. Numerous types of candy and snacks contain chocolate, either as a filling (e.g., M&M's) or as a coating (e.g., chocolate-coated raisins or chocolate-coated peanuts). Cocoa is the key ingredient in chocolate and chocolate confections. Milk and speciality chocolates may have additional ingredients such as milk, fruits and nuts. [30][31], White chocolate was first introduced to the U.S. in 1946 by Frederick E. Hebert of Hebert Candies in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, near Boston, after he had tasted "white coat" candies while traveling in Europe. [81] Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects in humans, but the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, including dogs and cats. It is 59% carbohydrates (52% as sugar and 3% as dietary fiber), 30% fat and 8% protein (table). The effectiveness of fair trade has been questioned. [16] For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans. If the chocolate is going to be higher quality, cocoa butter will be re-added to the chocolate liquor, along with other ingredients like sugar, vanilla, and milk. What is white chocolate exactly? Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas, but varying proportions of the different constituents are used. Maximilian Stock Ltd. / Photolibrary / Getty Images. The cacao tree is a tropical plant that grows only within 20 degrees latitude of the Equator. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration calls this "sweet chocolate", and requires a 15% concentration of chocolate liquor. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect, hence the smooth feel in the mouth. [119] Major chocolate producers, such as Nestlé, buy cocoa at commodities exchanges where Ivorian cocoa is mixed with other cocoa.[120]. These native American civilizations were the first to recognize the value of the cacao bean, using the pods as … [127], In the 2000s, some chocolate producers began to engage in fair trade initiatives, to address concerns about the marginalization of cocoa laborers in developing countries. The original bitter chocolate drink favored by Mayans and Aztecs is very different from our smooth, sweet chocolate bars today, yet the source of both remains the same: the humble cacao bean. [56], Cacao pods are harvested by cutting them from the tree using a machete, or by knocking them off the tree using a stick. The Aztecs were unable to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire. [49] Due to concerns about global warming effects on lowland climate in the narrow band of latitudes where cacao is grown (20 degrees north and south of the equator), the commercial company Mars, Incorporated and the University of California, Berkeley are conducting genomic research in 2017–18 to improve the survivability of cacao plants in hot climates.[50]. Nearly all cacao produced over the past five decades is of the forastero or lower-grade trinitario varieties. While they sound similar, the … 2011;15(10):2779-2811. children involved in the farming of cocoa, List of bean-to-bar chocolate manufacturers, Salvation Army International Development (SAID) UK, Cuestión moral: si el chocolate quebranta el ayuno eclesiástico, "Consumían olmecas chocolate hace 3000 años", "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 1200–1521 – Obtaining Cacao", "Child labour: the true cost of chocolate production", "Falling cocoa prices threaten child labor spike in Ghana, Ivory Coast", "Earliest Evidence of Chocolate in North America", "New Chemical Analyses Take Confirmation Back 500 Years and Reveal that the Impetus for Cacao Cultivation was an Alcoholic Beverage", "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. I show the cacao tree, cacao pods, fermented beans, nibs and the final process in making chocolate. According to … "[117] Reported in 2018, a 3-year pilot program – conducted by Nestlé with 26,000 farmers mostly located in Côte d'Ivoire – observed a 51% decrease in the number of children doing hazardous jobs in cocoa farming. [7] On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC. 100-grams of milk chocolate is an excellent source (over 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of riboflavin, vitamin B12 and the dietary minerals, manganese, phosphorus and zinc. Using cocoa beans from the West Indies, the pair built their chocolate business, which is still in operation. What you really need to understand is the cocoa percentage: how much of the chocolate is made up of cocoa solids—that is, roasted cocoa beans that’ve been ground into a … For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. Chocolate is a preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds that is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, which may also be used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. [91], One tablespoonful (5 grams) of dry unsweetened cocoa powder has 12.1 mg of caffeine[92] and a 25-g single serving of dark chocolate has 22.4 mg of caffeine. [14] A few years thereafter, in 1828, he created a press to remove about half the natural fat (cocoa butter or cacao butter) from chocolate liquor, which made chocolate both cheaper to produce and more consistent in quality. [89] Research has also shown that consuming dark chocolate does not substantially affect blood pressure. Fairtrade seeks to establish a system of direct trade from developing countries to counteract this unfair system. Chocolate is made from cacao beans — or rather seeds — from the Theobroma cacao tree. [74], Chocolate bloom is caused by storage temperature fluctuating or exceeding 24 °C (75 °F), while sugar bloom is caused by temperature below 15 °C (59 °F) or excess humidity. The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it then turns red. Unfortunately, these spices tended to unsettle the European constitution; the Encyclopédie states, "The pleasant scent and sublime taste it imparts to chocolate have made it highly recommended; but a long experience having shown that it could potentially upset one's stomach", which is why chocolate without vanilla was sometimes referred to as "healthy chocolate". Amano Artisan Chocolate Makers, who also asked what is white chocolate, believe it came from someone who wanted to make use of excess cocoa butter. [20], Known as "Dutch cocoa", this machine-pressed chocolate was instrumental in the transformation of chocolate to its solid form when, in 1847, English chocolatier Joseph Fry discovered a way to make chocolate moldable when he mixed the ingredients of cocoa powder and sugar with melted cocoa butter. Chocolate made from unfermented cocoa beans does not have the body and richness as chocolate made from fermented cocoa beans. [10][21] José de Acosta, a Spanish Jesuit missionary who lived in Peru and then Mexico in the later 16th century, wrote of its growing influence on the Spaniards: Loathsome to such as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth that is very unpleasant to taste. (A.D.) – Obtaining Cacao", "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. After fermentation, the beans must be quickly dried to prevent mold growth. You can help by eating more dark chocolate", "Agriculture in Ethiopia and Uganda: Not so fair trade", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chocolate&oldid=998707502, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from January 2021, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Glossy, firm, best snap, melts near body temperature (37 °C), Dark chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, and (sometimes) vanilla, Milk chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, milk or milk powder, and vanilla, White chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, milk or milk powder, and vanilla. [29] In 1893, Milton S. Hershey purchased chocolate processing equipment at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and soon began the career of Hershey's chocolates with chocolate-coated caramels. [32][31], Cacao, pronounced by the Olmecs as kakawa,[1] dates to 1000 BC or earlier. As a solid piece of chocolate, the cocoa butter fat particles are in a crystalline rigid structure that gives the chocolate its solid appearance. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs. Sign up for our newsletter and get our cookbook. Heating the working areas of the table-mill, an innovation that emerged in France in 1732, also assisted in extraction. Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking chocolate. The ingredients used are dependent on the type of chocolate being made. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept in a liquid state by frictional heat. This step is crucial, as the fermentation process mellows the flavor of the beans and imparts the fruity undertones of the pulp. The English word "chocolate" comes, … [14], The new craze for chocolate brought with it a thriving slave market, as between the early 1600s and late 1800s, the laborious and slow processing of the cacao bean was manual. [118] Thirty percent of children under age 15 in sub-Saharan Africa are child laborers, mostly in agricultural activities including cocoa farming. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, which combines chocolate with sugar. They associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, who, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans,[14] and identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. serving of coffee may contain 80–175 mg,[94] studies have shown psychoactive effects in caffeine doses as low as 9 mg,[95] and a dose as low as 12.5 mg was shown to have effects on cognitive performance. Antioxid Redox Signal. Chocolate truffles when made in the classic way are dark or black in color, irregular shaped and look like they have been dug up just like the mushroom. Chocolate may be a factor for heartburn in some people because one of its constituents, theobromine, may affect the esophageal sphincter muscle in a way that permits stomach acids to enter the esophagus. There are three types of cacao trees: the Forastero, the most common and robust variety with the least remarkable flavor, the Criollo, the most delicate and rare tree, with a heavily perfumed fruit, and the Trinitario, a hybrid between the Forastero and the Criollo that displays characteristics of both trees, having an average yield of moderately aromatic beans. There, it quickly became a court favorite. [126] Despite these efforts, goals to reduce child labor in West Africa by 70% before 2020 are frustrated by persistent poverty, absence of schools, expansion of cocoa farmland, and increased demand for cocoa. When the heat is removed, the cocoa butter crystals become rigid again and come closer together, allowing the chocolate to solidify. Food conglomerates Nestlé SA and Kraft Foods both have chocolate brands. It is possible that the Spaniards coined the word (perhaps in order to avoid caca, a vulgar Spanish word for "faeces") by combining the Yucatec Mayan word chocol, "hot", with the Nahuatl word atl, "water". As of 2017[update], there is no high-quality evidence that dark chocolate affects blood pressure significantly or provides other health benefits.[40]. Some chocolate liqueurs contain dark chocolate and others are made with milk chocolate or white chocolate. They naturally grow within 20° of either side of the equator because they need about 2000 mm of rainfall a year, and temperatures in the range of 21 to 32 °C (70 to 90 °F). The most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid "seed" chocolate. Children under age 15 in sub-Saharan Africa are child laborers, mostly in agricultural activities including cocoa farming indicates! 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