Except during the First Republic (1873–74), the Second Republic (1931–36), and the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), Spain also always had a monarchy. The northern part of Catalonia is currently integrated to France, since 1659. For almost 40 years Catalonia was governed under military dictatorship. Catalonia's independence movement — a brief history The end of freedom In the Second Spanish Republic, Catalan lawmakers worked on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. So they held their referendum, because that was the only peaceful option left, and they were beaten by riot cops. The capital, Barcelona, is the second most populated city in Spain and is one of the major economic, financial and cultural urban centres in Europe, as well as one of the world’s leading technological, tourist, cultural and trade hubs. For a complete list of the kings and queens regnant of Spain, see below. During the war years, Lluís Companys remained the President of the Generalitat and ERC played a key role in government, along with other political and social forces. With the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat was restored as a Catalan autonomous government. But a special certificate would need to be produced as proof. Comprising the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, it borders Spain and Aragon to the West and France and Andorra to the North. Catalonia Royal La Romana is an exclusive adults-only resort located on the southern coast of the Dominican Republic bathed by the turquoise waters of the Caribbean Sea, where it witnesses the Caribbean sunset every afternoon. In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia enjoyed and lost several times varying degrees of autonomy, but like the rest of Spain, Catalan autonomy and culture were crushed to an unprecedented degree after the defeat of the Second Spanish Republic (founded 1931) in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) brought General Francisco Franco to power. Rather than merely restore this autonomy, the new democratic constitution of 1978 diluted its significance by awarding self-government to all regions, some of which had no identity or culture of their own. The common narrative of the 1930s is that the Spanish Second Republic came into existence without sin in 1931 via a form of constitutional virgin birth, governed a paradise on earth for five years, and was destroyed by a fascist coup because destroying peace and happiness is what fascists do, especially when they can have a go at peaceful, democratic Catalans. The crushing impact of Franco on Catalonia’s regional identity was beyond anything previously seen. Alfonso subsequently went into exile, and the Second Republic, initially dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, ... and Catalonia became a key Republican stronghold. But the tides turned in favour of the Catalan people in 1931 when the Second Spanish Republic’s constitution recognised Catalonia as a nation and Catalan as an official language of the republic. Catalonia's autonomy and language was not recognised again until 1978. On Thursday, Mr Castex said travel during hours of curfew was permitted for trips to the hospital or pharmacy, or if work hours required. Plaça Sant Jaume has seen it all before. In the 1930s the Second Republic granted self-government to Catalonia. Its name, which dates about the 11th century BC, means "Land of Castles". Spain - Spain - Government and society: From 1833 until 1939 Spain almost continually had a parliamentary system with a written constitution. Its small details, as well as the personalized service, make the stay of each of our guests unforgettable. Each of these has its own language, culture, and history, and all of them prefer a republic to the monarchy. In the Second Spanish Republic, Catalan lawmakers worked on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. Second, that we will be loyal to the mandate of the referendum of self-determination of October 1: to build an independent state in the form of a republic. Representing Catalan National Identity. Though failing in Catalonia, the uprising by the Spanish military against the democratic order of the Second Republic triggered the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Health, Covid-19, the vaccine rollout and the pandemic's impact will still be the hottest issues of at least some months of 2021. The Republican Left of Catalonia, in coalition with the Socialist Union of Catalonia and other minor left-wing parties, won a large majority of seats (67 of 85), while the previously hegemonic Regionalist League, representing a more conservative view of Catalan nationalism, came in second … After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government … The Federal Republic of Catalonia is a Western European country. Third, our program of government is the economic prosperity and social cohesion of Catalonia.” Ortega was speaking in the turbulent era of Spain’s Second Republic, just before the 1936-39 civil war, when Catalan secessionism briefly posed a challenge to Spain’s unity. The region gained its current autonomous status first during the era of the Second Spanish Republic (1930s) and then again after dictator Franco's death in 1975. Within days of Spain’s Second Republic forming in 1931, Catalans declared an independent republic within an ‘Iberian Federation’ but Madrid intervened again to quash this desire. ... Catalonia and the Basque Country remained in the hands of the government of the Republic. The surreal 2020 put the Catalonia-Spain conflict somehow aside of the main headlines after eight years, and at least in part of the year that just began the political situation will continue in second position. The Spanish region of Catalonia is postponing regional elections planned for Feb. 14 until May 30 because of a strong surge in COVID-19 cases in … Journal of Catalan Studies 2008 65 Representing Catalan National Identity. It was restored under the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39), abolished again by Francisco Franco, and restored again after his death in 1975. The region fought for the Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War from 1936 to 1939, but its defeat led to the Catalan language being outlawed under Francisco Franco’s 40-year military rule. Catalonia during the Spanish Second Republic and the Civil War Agustí Colomines i Companys In 1714, after the war of Sucession, Catalonia had all its institutions, language and rights suppressed. During the war, Catalonia as a region was committed to the Second Spanish Republic (although many conservatives actually backed Franco out of fear of social revolution). Catalonia during the Spanish Second Republic and the Civil War Amid a brutal repression, Spain was divided into two zones: the Republican zone (“zona The Second Republic (1931-1936) The birth of the Second Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history. It has always been the left republican vision of Spain. During the Second Republic, Spain had conceded autonomy to the culturally distinctive regions of the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia. Another vision of Spain, however, is plurinational, recognizing other nations in Spain, including Catalonia, the Basque Country, and Galicia. Next, there is the Republican Left of Catalonia-Catalonia Yes party, an alliance of parties that are center-left to left-wing, with the Republican Left as the historic Catalan party founded in 1931, the year of Spain’s Second Spanish Republic. Catalonia tried for years to get the Spanish gov't to live up to their promises for increased regional autonomy, and were consistently ignored. Catalonia has its own culture, with distinctive art and architectural styles, cuisine, literary traditions, holidays and festivals. 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