ChoraleGUIDE: harmonising Bach chorales: ChoraleGUIDE.com is a web resource for learning about writing four-part harmony in the style of J.S. Lesson 7: Identifying Modulation and Cadences. Do. In the example above, you can clearly see all the elements of part-writing at work. This holds the texture together by contrasting the more mobile outer parts with steady inner parts. 3; 1808 – Beethoven Symphony No. LuxSitPress, 2017. There is no one way to write or teach chorales. So, if you are specifically studying for a qualification, please do check with the exam board requirements as some can be quite specific about what they like to see. Everyone will do it a different way and there are several resources out there already that will also be beneficial to anyone learning. Use characteristic progressions from Bach's own chorales as often as you can. To get your head round how the parts should be spaced, complete the following five chords on manuscript paper, ensuring that spacing is kept within the limits defined above. Yes, this is part of it especially during the learning process, but harmonisation should be thought of first and foremost as pastiche composition (composing in a particular style). Learning to harmonise in the chorale style is beneficial to any composer or music analyst. Choral versions of all these chorales may be found on YouTube by searching for the BWV number. Take a look at our interactive learning Mind Map about Bach Chorale Rules, or create your own Mind Map using our free cloud based Mind Map maker. The table below gives the following information for settings of chorales by Johann Sebastian Bach. 40; 1788 Mozart No. These are considered poor harmony in chorales, as the similar motion combined with the perfect intervals between the outer parts distracts too much from the rest of the harmony. Subscribe here to receive updates whenever they are posted. Often, they are relatively easy to spot: However, sometimes they do become more difficult to identify or avoid! Includes: doubling, suspensions, modulations, parallels, leading notes and 7ths, and primary and secondary chords. Chorale harmony is also commonly referred to as four-part harmony, named after the number of parts that make up the choir. It would be beneficial here to also study the basics of counterpoint, as the styles of writing co-existed and relate to each other quite heavily. In Bach’s Chorale Cantatas, both text and music are based on one Lutheran hymn. Subscribe here to receive updates whenever they are posted. Chorales follow strict “rules”, patterns and formulae that define what is “allowed” and what is not. Wolffrefers to Bach’scollection of 370 four-part chorales that charted the course for tonal harmony. We discuss the use of rule-based evaluation and proceed to make experiments that The … Donald Francis Tovey observes:Counterpoint, the art defined by Sir Fr e deric kGor eOusele yasthat of ’combining melodies’. A brief list of things to aim for and to avoid in terms of chords and harmonic progressions. 41; 1791 Haydn No. Bach's Chorale Cantatas. Chorales have a particular sound that comes not just from the avoidance of parallels, but also from the spacing of the chords so that the timbres are balances nicely. Open scoring, also known as vocal scoring, is written with each voice contained on its own stave, making for ease of reading and singing for performers. Four-part chorales by Johann Sebastian Bach, collected after his death by son C.P.E. Bach’s student, after C.P.E. Chorales are written primarily to be sung by a four-voice choir in a standard SATB setup: Soprano                       Alto                 Tenor               Bass. Parallel fifths and octaves occur when two parts that are a fifth or octave apart move in the same direction to new notes that are the same interval apart. Basic Non-Harmony (Non-essential) Notes. This is general page all of the chorales. Regardless whether you are following a specific qualification or studying independently, it is important to remember a few things: Several exam boards in the UK cover harmonising chorales, and I’m sure there may be many more if you are abroad. There are a few reasons for this: Identify all of the parallels in the following example of “bad” harmony. 5 ; 1824 – Beethoven Symphony No. I’ve tried to design it so that you can dip in and out of certain subjects, and I’ve tried to keep the explanations clear but detailed. They are the crucial supporting roles that make chorales work so well. Bach chorales are not piano music per se, but rather vocal music for a choir consisting of four voices: soprano, alto, tenor, bass (SATB). Changes in part spacing effect the texture of the music. Bach Chorale No.3 Ach Gott und Herr BWV 255 . By extension of this rule, it is best to write chorales in such a way as the distance between the tenor and soprano parts is never more than an octave and a 5 th, but these parts should usually be as closely spaced as possible. Whether you are looking to learn from scratch as a hobbyist, alongside your school or university lessons, or for any other reason, I hope the resources on these pages will prove useful. In time and with practice, you can learn to follow the rules and produce unique, creative and interesting work in the style of composers such as Bach. I have approached these lessons from my own point of view, and although I have suggested some tasks to try along the way, I will always recommend that the best way to put your learning into practice is by taking a melody of an existing chorale and re-harmonising it yourself. 8; 1815 – Schubert Symphony No. The bass and soprano are given for you. Chorales are used in some of Bach's earliest cantatas, although he usually incorporates them into just one or two movements. Forty Bach Chorales It is the chorales, not his trademark fugues, that lie at the heart of Bach’stechnique. Donald Francis Tovey observes:Counterpoint, the art defined by Sir Fr e deric kGor eOusele yasthat of ’combining melodies’. The resources and research pages provide numerous databases and articles that are designed to assist musicians, theorists, historians, composers, teachers, and amateur Bach–lovers alike. ATTENTION: This project has been discontinued, but a new one has begun. Please do let me know if there is anything missing so I can add it for future readers. Most of the time, you will only have to concern yourself with standard parallel fifths and octaves, however you should also be on the lookout for exposed fifths. 3. Bach’s death.. Fugues sound very different although they're constructed similarly yet just about all chorales I've heard so far sounded very similar melodically. First of all, we must consider the roles of each voice: The soprano and alto should work well as a two-part texture without the addition of other parts. Bach Chorales: a new critical and complete edition arranged by BWV catalogue number with text and historical contextual information included for each chorale with numerous indices included in the appendix. Content of Lesson: Focusing on the basic “rules” of chorale harmonisation. If the chorale is in a cantata, it is usually (but not always) at the very end. There are only ever four voices sounding at once. Notice that the Soprano and Bass move in contrary motion. If you are studying for a qualification, it is best to stick with the “rules are rules” mindset! You can think of part writing as the horizontal movement of individual parts within the texture, while the harmony itself works vertically. I hear you cry!). 5; 1808 – Beethoven Symphony No. INTRODUCTION The study of Bach’s Harmony has, along with 16th., Century vocal polyphony, long provided the basis for understanding Classical Music in all of the World's leading Conservatoires.Beethoven’s studies of Bach’s Chorales are well documented. 6 (Pastoral) 1812 – Beethoven Symphony No. A group of test subjects was … These are where the melody moves by leap to another note, in similar motion to the bass part (moving in the same direction), and the resulting harmony is at the interval of a fifth or octave. . For me, there’s no better place to look than Bach – so help yourself to any of his chorales and re-harmonise his melodies for yourself. These closed score arrangements, ideal for playing at the piano, offer keyboardists an opportunity to practice their sight-reading skills. What we call the “rules” are the particular stylistic traits of chorale writing which were considered good practice by composers of that time. 3; 1816 – Schubert Symphony No. •Melodies should be something easy to sing with a recognisable tune. Different boards expect different things, so make sure you know what specifically you need to be able to do for your course. 25; 1788 Mozart No. There are both parallel and exposed 5ths or 8ves in this example (there are many!). The tests are progressive, as follows: In Chorales 1-4, only the bass part is to be completed; students should concentrate on writing smooth, fluent and strong bass lines. . Public domain. Keep most of the harmony simple by starting from stage one and only harmonic changes that are necessary in order to improve the bassline. J.S. The horizontal movement of notes (part-writing) is equally important, and will make the difference between a harmonisation that works and one that doesn’t. Chorales are not just “following the rules” and “recognising patterns”. chorales. In Chorales 5-7, the bass line is provided, and students should complete the alto and tenor parts. Bach is given extensive treatment clearly showing the functional harmony that is implicit in his music by a thorough harmonic analysis underneath each phrase. From http://cantorion.org/musicreview/514/371%20Chorale%20Harmonisations%20%28Part%201%29 The goal is to harmonise melodies in the style of J.S.Bach; we wish to nd tendencies and perhaps rules that Bach may have followed consciously or unconsciously. Includes: doubling, suspensions, modulations, parallels, leading notes and 7ths, and primary and secondary chords. Each of the chorales of J.S. By JS Bach. Among the short examples presented at the end of the paper, some are flawless. In the following sections we propose a decomposition of f into manageable subfunctions. Hints on harmonising chorales Cadences Bach uses iib7 frequently in the context of perfect and imperfect cadences. They might be better described as guidelines that allow us to write in this particular style, as even Bach himself can be found “breaking” the rules on occasion! Part spacing concerns the vertical distance between each part, in the case of chorales between Soprano and alto, alto and tenor, and tenor and bass. 94; 1804 – Beethoven Symphony No. However, as with the other rules it will help yield good harmony. Closed scoring is written with two staves, one containing Soprano and Alto (in treble clef) and the other containing Tenor and Bass (in bass clef). When you can do this, you are ready for Lesson 3: Basic Non-Harmony (Non-Essential) Notes. By extension of this rule, it is best to write chorales in such a way as the distance between the tenor and soprano parts is never more than an octave and a 5th, but these parts should usually be as closely spaced as possible. It has been written for A2 students at King Edward VI College in Stourbridge, and is suitable for A level (particularly Edexcel) and first year undergraduate study. Following these rules allows us to write in the chorale style, however…. We have chosen a GA approach to construct the new harmonisations. Your ear is attracted to it, and therefore distracted by it. Lesson 3: Basic Non-Harmony (Non-Essential) Notes. Understand what parallel and exposed fifths and octaves are, and identify them in a score. Although previous generative models have focused only on codifying musical rules or on machine learning without any rule specification, by using a combination of musicologically sound constraints with weights estimated from chorales composed by Bach, we were able to produce musical output in a style that closely resembles Bach's chorale harmonizations. This can be remembered by using the phrase “the bass fills the space!”, (or alternatively, get Megan Trainor’s. Wolffrefers to Bach’scollection of 370 four-part chorales that charted the course for tonal harmony. 18 No. So, there are cases in which, even if parallel fifths appear in the score, they do not convey the effect of hollowness, emptiness or stillness that parallel fifths may have on listeners. •These melodies are broken up into phrases, which are identified by pause marks – … It is usually pr epared by Ib with the bass doubled. In his Passions, he often used chorales to complete a scene, as in this example from the St. Matthew Passion. argued that within the prolongation of one triad the rules of strict counterpoint may not apply; consequently that, “… consecutive octaves or fifths need not be considered wrong”. Any feedback is greatly appreciated, whether it be regarding theoretical questions or typos! •Bach Chorales are meant to be sung by four part harmony – SATB, originally for Lutheran churches in Germany. DeepBach: a Steerable Model for Bach Chorales Generation ... acterizing the style of Bach. There are leaps in the soprano melody and the bass (bar 1 beat 3) while the middle parts area very steady, in this example never leaping at all (Ah, the mastery of Bach! A staple of every music program, Bach’s chorales spell out the rules of music theory that remain the cornerstones of modern composition. Consecutive Fifths & Octaves in the Bach Chorales. If you are studying for a qualification, always check with your exam board before assuming these lessons are 100% correct. Don't. 4) of length L .The lists are often initialized with random values drawn from the ranges of the corresponding voices 2: for mfrom 1 to M do 3:Choose voice iuniformly between 1 and 4 4:Choose time tuniformly between 1 and L 5:Re-sample Vt ifrom p(Vt ijV. Lesson 7: Identifying Modulation and Cadences, Chorales follow strict “rules”, patterns and formulae that define what is “allowed” and what is not. Bach Chorales: A Guide. Most of Bach's known chorale harmonisations are movements in his extant cantatas, motets, Passions and oratorios. Regular consecutive parallels reduce the options available for the rest of the parts when it comes to harmony. It is a rule-based expert system which contains no less than 300 rules and tries to rehar-monize a given melody with a generate-and-test method and intelligent backtracking. Any lover of harmony and/or music theory will treasure this collection of the Bach chorales. Unlike other editions of the Bach Chorales, The Street Smart™ Guide to the Bach Chorales comes with introductory chapters giving you notes on how to analyze the chorales to understand their harmonic structure. These voices are typically written in one of two ways, using either open or closed scoring. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Overview The Street Smart™ Guide to the Bach Chorales is a new presentation of all 389 chorales from the 1898 Bachgeselleschaft edition, complete with lyrics. Following the guidelines above, as well as using correct part spacing and avoiding forbidden parallels, complete the inner harmony in the following example. Two or more voices singing consecutively in parallel tend to sound as one part, and thus reduces the number of different parts. While no thorough account of the rationale behind this rule will be rehearsed here, suffice it to say that parallel fifths and octaves violate the principles of counterpoint by interfering with the independence of voices required. However, everyone learns differently  and so I have added my own resources to the vast array of online material. Because chorales are not actual “piano music,” this is most likely the reason they have traditionally been neglected or discounted by … In order to keep the parts well balanced, we must consider the contour (shape) of each part: To balance these parts, and not distract from them, the alto and tenor parts should have a steady and mostly stepwise contour, with only occasional leaps over a third. They should add colour and fullness to the texture created by soprano and bass alone. 1 List of the Bach's Chorales settings, with different numberings. Remember, these are more like guidelines to help you produce the best possible part writing, which is key to the chorale style. 1770 J.C. Bach Op. Following these rules allows us to write in the chorale style, however… These rules were devised by looking back at how composers wrote their chorales. This is perhaps the most ‘flexible’ rule in that it is not strictly the case in all situations. At bach–chorales.com you will find high quality renderings of each Bach chorale, accompanied with thorough contextual information that incorporates the most up–to–date research. These rules were devised by looking back at how composers wrote their chorales. Bach, but finished by Kirnberger, J.S. ni;t;S;F; ) 6: end for return (V. 1;V. 2;V. Vocal music in particular is sensitive to changes in part spacing, as voices are prone to quite extreme timbre changes across the pitch range. Specifically, Coconet was trained on 306 of Bach’s chorale harmonizations. Start studying Bach chorale rules & stylistic features. The two work in tandem, resulting in chords that flow smoothly due to the well-written independent parts. Those pesky harmony rules! Chorales seem to adhere to very strict rules and not only rules of form, like fugues, but melodical rules as well. This allows for easier study of harmony in my opinion, while still retaining ease of singing albeit with more ledger lines in the Tenor! It becomes much harder to build interesting parts with the remaining voices if two or more are moving so strongly in the same direction! Harmony in the Style of Bach Rules and Guidelines for Writing Four-Part Harmony in the Style of Bach. Build free Mind Maps, Flashcards, Quizzes and Notes Create, discover and share resources Although it is called harmonising, it is not just about the vertical arrangement of chords. 2 Cantatas (1–224) 3 Motets, Passions, Christmas Oratorio, Wedding Chorales (226–252) 4 Other Chorales in four-parts (253–438) List of the Bach's Chorales settings, with different numberings. Chorale harmonisations in various collections. 47; 1773 Mozart No. Forty Bach Chorales It is the chorales, not his trademark fugues, that lie at the heart of Bach’stechnique. Bach for Breitkopf). Avoiding parallel fifths and octaves is one of the foundational "rules" of counterpoint. Our first rule tells us that parallel and exposed fifths and octaves should be avoided. Task 2: Part Spacing Task. The basic rules of four-part harmony will guide you to create music in this style. The important historical collections have their own collection pages, and only selected copies are here (371 chorales supervised by C.P.E. Prior Knowledge: Scales, chord construction and closely related keys. Compose inner harmonies that are steady and appropriate to the chorale style. True or false quiz on harmony. Bach. Bach Chorales These 20 chorale exercises (with solutions) are intended for use in preparation for EdExcel A2 tests. * The 7th in iib is suspended from Ib, and resolves ornamentally to E (x) via the quaver D (+). 4; 1772 Haydn No. Part writing is as key to the chorale style as the harmonic progressions. Given a set of Bach chorales, our goal is to find an approximation j of the quite com ­ plex functionl f which maps chorale melodies into their harmonization as demon­ strated by J .S.Bach on almost 400 examples. – SATB, originally for Lutheran churches in Germany but not always ) at the very end offer an! The heart of Bach ’ stechnique therefore distracted by it learning to harmonise in same... Are 100 % correct added my own resources to the texture together by contrasting the mobile! 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