But keeping in mind the various model limitations, there is a need for multiple climate scenarios and vegetation model-based assessment of climate change impacts at decentralised levels. After India attained independence in 1947, political parties began to be formed in Sikkim for the first time. Sikkim achieved its ambition to convert its agriculture to fully organic between 2003 and 2016, and became the first state in India to achieve this distinction. Shortlist. [68] These four districts are further divided into 16 subdivisions; Pakyong, Rongli, Rangpo and Gangtok are the subdivisions of the East district. Additional official languages include Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newar, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang for the purpose of preservation of culture and tradition in the state. Meanwhile, the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for Nepalis in Sikkim. The party subsequently launched a campaign to obtain greater political liberties and rights, and the chogyal attempted to suppress the movement. Sikkim Housing and Development Board appointed under section 6; [(16a) "State Government" means the Government of Sikkim.] The Chinese government eventually recognised Sikkim as an Indian state in 2003, on the condition that India officially recognise Tibet as a part of China;[44] New Delhi had originally accepted Tibet as a part of China in 1953 during the government of Jawaharlal Nehru. [31], Sikkim became a British protectorate in the later decades of the 19th century, formalised by a convention signed with China in 1890. Gangtok Smart City Development Limited Urban Development and Housing Department Proposed Land-use Pattern of Gangtok The fundamental differences between urban and rural are discussed in the following points: A settlement where the population is very high and has the features of a built environment (an environment that provides basic facilities for human activity), is known as urban. [143] There are a total of 1,157 schools in the state, including 765 schools run by the state government, seven central government schools and 385 private schools. (2011) 607,688. [96][97] The airport is capable of operating ATR aircraft.[98]. [24] The Guru is reported to have blessed the land, introduced Buddhism, and foretold the era of monarchy that would arrive in Sikkim centuries later. In Sikkim, agriculture is the main occupation of the inhabitants. [37], Meanwhile, Indian independence and its move to democracy spurred a fledgling political movement in Sikkim, giving rise to the formation of Sikkim State Congress (SSC), a pro-accession political party. Sikkim's geographical and environmental conditions are conducive for development of floriculture at a higher altitude. Many of Sikkim’s farmers also raise livestock, including cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and poultry. The Lepchas are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim. Culture • The Mizos are usually settled which means they have a well organized community and houses that reflect this lifestyle. [39] In other respects, Sikkim retained administrative autonomy. [3] English is taught in schools and used in government documents. "Modernizing a Traditional Administrative System: Sikkim 1890–1973", Autonomous administrative divisions of India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sikkim&oldid=1000879304, States and territories established in 1975, Former British colonies and protectorates in Asia, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages with incorrect protection templates, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2017, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. During the Losar (Tibetan New Year), most offices and educational institutions are closed for a week. Sikkim is the least populous and second smallest among the Indian states. [106] In the second phase the line will be extended up to Gangtok. As a result, state revenue has increased 14 times since the mid-1990s. The Namgyal Institute of Tibetology (1958), in Gangtok, has one of the largest collections of Tibetan books in the world. India is said to have stationed 20,000–40,000 troops in a country of only 200,000 during the referendum. Foreign Trade Pattern of Nepal: Gravity Model Approach Modeling Indian Wheat and Rice Sector Policies Comparative analysis of transplanted and dibbled method of redgram cultivation in Bidar district of Karnataka Raising agricultural productivity with reduced use of energy and groundwater Nestling in the Himalayan mountains, the state of Sikkim is characterised by mountainous terrain. Gangtok (/ ˈ ɡ æ ŋ t ɒ k / (), Nepali: ) is a city, municipality, the capital and the largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim.It is also the headquarters of the East Sikkim district. The second striking pattern is the most backward tribal sub- districtregarding housing amenities also situated in the developed districts of the state such as Kota and Bilha block of Bilaspur, Kharsia block of Raigarh districts. When the situation got out of control, the chogyal asked the government of India to take over the administration. With around 98,000 inhabitants as of 2011, the capital Gangtok is the most significant urban area in the mostly rural state; in 2005, the urban population in Sikkim constituted around 11.06 per cent of the total. Online media covering Sikkim include the Nepali newspaper Himgiri, the English news portal Haalkhabar and the literary magazine Tistarangit. Some two-thirds of Sikkim consists of perpetually snow-covered mountains, dominated by the Kanchenjunga massif. [45] The 2003 agreement led to a thaw in Sino-Indian relations,[46] and on 6 July 2006, the Sikkimese Himalayan pass of Nathu La was opened to cross-border trade, becoming the first open border between India and China. More than two-fifths of Sikkim is forested. [36] A standstill agreement was signed in February 1948. [120] The native Sikkimese consist of the Bhutias, who migrated from the Kham district of Tibet in the 14th century, and the Lepchas, who are believed to pre-date the Bhutias and are the oldest known inhabitants. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. With an authorized capital of Rs 2,500 crore, as on date HUDCO has a … [132], Sikkimese Muslims celebrate Eid ul-Fitr and Muharram. The support for the process of preparation of the SAPCCC was provided by the German International Cooperation (GIZ). In 1700, Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal, who had been denied the throne. Himalayan Journals: notes of a naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia mountains etc. [87][88] The Playwin lottery has been a notable success in the state. This prompted the British East India Company to attack Nepal, resulting in the Gurkha War of 1814. Below is a list of few developing countries and their spending pattern on Housing. The state's first casino, the Casino Sikkim, opened in March 2009, and the government subsequently issued a number of additional casino licences and online sports betting licenses. The Noble Dendrobium is the official flower of Sikkim, while the rhododendron is the state tree. Considering the gradual decline in the interest level of young students to pursue careers in the field of S & T in the country, there is a pressing need to strengthen STEM (science, technology, engineering & mathematics) education by creating additional infrastructure for hands-on and engaging activities, especially in non-formal mode of education. Momos – steamed dumplings filled with vegetables, beef or pork and served with soup – are a popular snack. Roughly three-fourths of Sikkim’s residents are Nepalese in origin; most speak a Nepali (Gorkhali) dialect and are Hindu in religion and culture. [125] The public and visual aesthetics of Sikkim are executed in shades of Vajrayana Buddhism and Buddhism plays a significant role in public life, even among Sikkim's majority Nepali Hindu population. The climate pattern is moist tropical to moist sub-tropical, with average state rainfall 254 centimetres (100 in) per annum. A state council was established in 1953 to allow for constitutional government under the Chogyal. The record for the longest period of continuous rain in Sikkim is 11 days. Little is known of Sikkim’s history prior to the 17th century. [111] However, the voltage remains unstable and voltage stabilisers are needed. Other notable towns include Singtam, Rangpo, Jorethang, Naya Bazar, Mangan, Gyalshing, and Namchi. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana. Within a stretch of roughly 50 miles (80 km), the land rises from an elevation of about 750 feet (225 metres) in the Tista River valley to nearly 28,200 feet (8,600 metres) at Kanchenjunga, India’s highest peak and the world’s third highest mountain. The construction work assigned to the Buildings & Housing Department, Government of Sikkim has already commenced. Depending on elevation and exposure, annual precipitation varies from 50 to 200 inches (1,270 to 5,080 mm), most occurring during the months of the southwest monsoon (May through October). Beans, ginger, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, and tea also are grown. The state’s name is derived from the Limbu words su him, meaning “new house.” The Lepcha were early inhabitants of the region, apparently assimilating the Naong, Chang, Mon, and other tribes. Sikkim is blessed by a fertile land that largely supports agriculture. Are State Share and ULB share in line with proposed Mission approach? The Central Business District (CBD) - This is in the centre and contains the: shops, offices and public buildings (like museums and hospitals) because it is the most accessible point. The Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal asked India for help in quelling the movement, which was offered in the form of a small military police force and an Indian Dewan. In 1890 an agreement was concluded between the British and the Tibetans that defined the border between Sikkim and Tibet. Sikkim (/ˈsɪkɪm/; Nepali: [ˈsikːim]) is a state in northeastern India. Evidently the housing pattern has been changing fast wheresoever motorable roads enter. In a special referendum held in 1975, more than 97 percent of the electorate voted for the merger of Sikkim with India. The average annual temperature for most of Sikkim is around 18 °C (64 °F). Establishment of the Board. Sikkim’s cultural life, though showing strong Tibetan influences, retains a character derived from the various tribes of Sikkim and their pre-Buddhist customs. Phuntsog Namgyal was succeeded in 1670 by his son, Tensung Namgyal, who moved the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse (near modern Pelling). km. In that contextual, paper also describe the level trends and pattern of the land use through geospatial and demographic techniques. The town's population of 100,000 are from different ethnicities such as Bhutia, Lepchas and Indian Gorkhas. [139], In 1957, a Nepali monthly magazine Kanchenjunga was the first news outlet for the masses in Sikkim. [140], The southern urban areas of Sikkim have English, Nepali and Hindi daily newspapers. Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation -AMRUT. Sikkim is one of the few states in India to receive regular snowfall. Agriculture in Sikkim seems to be the basis of the socio-cultural pattern of the territory. Sikkim Housing and Development Board appointed under section 6; [(16a) "State Government" means the Government of Sikkim.] Almost 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park – a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nearly 81 per cent of the area of Sikkim comes under the administration of its forest department. The Sikkim basin is drained by the Tista River and its tributaries, such as the Rangit, Lhonak, Talung, and Lachung, which have cut deep valleys into the mountains. According to the Indian geography the state is located at the center of the Indian subcontinent, amidst the ranges of Himalaya and the Aravalli. Until the early 1970s, Sikkim had only cottage industries—producing handwoven textiles, carpets, and blankets—as well as traditional handicrafts, such as embroidery, scroll paintings, and wood carving. [59] The tundra-type region in the north is snowbound for four months every year, and the temperature drops below 0 °C (32 °F) almost every night. [102] The five-station line is intended to support both economic development and Indian Army operations and was initially planned to be completed by 2015,[103][104] though as of 2013 its construction has met with delays. Tourism in Sikkim has emerged as the new profession of the Sikkimese people with its vast natural potential. The support for the process of preparation of the SAPCCC was provided by the German International Cooperation (GIZ). The closest major railway stations are Siliguri Junction and New Jalpaiguri in neighbouring West Bengal. Sikkim is blessed by a fertile land that largely supports agriculture. It enjoyed the highest literacy rate and per capita income among Himalayan states. The capital is Gangtok, in the southeastern part of the state. As a result, landslides are frequent, often isolating rural towns and villages from the major urban centres.[58]. Dream Opportunity with Buildings & Housing Department Sikkim Jobs in 2020. Dwellings on the Himalayan slopes at Lachung, Sikkim, India. Tibetans reside mostly in the northern and eastern reaches of the state. Before October 2018, the closest operational airport to Sikkim was Bagdogra Airport near Siliguri in northern West Bengal. Since that time, several small-scale industries have developed. Cattle and buffalo are limited mainly to the subtropical humid belt, while yaks and sheep are herded in the higher elevations in the north. Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia By James Minahan, 2012, indiatoday.in/amp/education-today/gk-current-affairs/story/mini-sikkim-in-making-308081-2016-02-10, Kanchenjunga and Sikkim Press: How Media Started Its Practice in Sikkim, the third-smallest GDP among Indian states, Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests, Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, third-smallest GDP among India's 28 states, List of institutions of higher education in Sikkim, National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT), Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, "2011 Census reference tables – total population", "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India", "Sikkim claims India's first mixed-criteria UNESCO World Heritage Site", "Why is Sikkim's merger with India being questioned by China? Sikkim: State Annual Action Plan (SAAP) for FY 2015-16 4 7. Sikkim is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and northeast, by Bhutan to the southeast, by the Indian state of West Bengal to the south, and by Nepal to the west. National Highway 10 (NH 10; formerly NH 31A) links Siliguri to Gangtok. Roads, though not extensive, are the primary mode of travel. The legendary Abominable Snowman, or yeti, called Nee-gued in Sikkim, is believed to roam its slopes. Housing the world’s third highest peak Mount Kanchenjunga (8586 meters) within its bounds, this Himalayan state offers you ample reasons to visit it right away. In that contextual, paper also describe the level trends and pattern of the land use through geospatial and demographic techniques. [18] The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong (Wylie-transliteration: 'bras ljongs), which means "valley of rice",[19] while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong, which means '"the hidden valley of rice". In addition, a small mining industry exists in Sikkim extracting minerals such as copper, dolomite, talc, graphite, quartzite, coal, zinc, and lead. The Bhutia began entering the area from Tibet in the 14th century. [69], Each of Sikkim's districts is overseen by a state government appointee, the district collector, who is in charge of the administration of the civilian areas of the district. Chamling and his party had since held on to power by winning the 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014 elections. Hide. [101] However, the New Sikkim Railway Project has been launched to connect the town of Rangpo in Sikkim with Sevoke on the West Bengal border. However, there also are many private schools operating within the state. Sikkim is also close to India's Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh.Sikkim is the least populous and second smallest among the Indian states. [85] In 2003, Sikkim decided to fully convert to organic farming and achieved this goal in 2015 becoming India's first "organic state". Agriculture in Sikkim seems to be the basis of the socio-cultural pattern of the territory. Thereafter, a referendum was held in which 97.5 per cent of voters supported abolishing the monarchy, effectively approving union with India. [67], Sikkim has four districts – East Sikkim, North Sikkim, South Sikkim and West Sikkim. Christians in Sikkim are mostly descendants of Lepchas who were converted by British missionaries in the late 19th century, and constitute around 10 percent of the population. Table 1.10—Sikkim: Net State Domestic Product and Per Capita Income at constant prices 19 Table 2.1—Utilization (in percent) pattern of various health services (rural areas) 22 Table 2.2—Environmental sanitation and other health amenities in rural Sikkim (in percent) 23 Share Feedback. [47], On 18 September 2011, a magnitude 6.9Mw earthquake struck Sikkim, killing at least 116 people in the state and in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Tibet. [40][unreliable source?] Migrant resident communities include Bengalis, Biharis and Marwaris, who are prominent in commerce in South Sikkim and Gangtok. The state government has already completed the construction of about 80,000 homes in the financial year 2015-16 under the 2BHK housing scheme. In the temperate elevations above 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) there are Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests, where oaks, chestnuts, maples, birches, alders, and magnolias grow in large numbers, as well as Himalayan subtropical pine forests, dominated by Chir pine. 3 UNFCCC CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES AND ADAPTATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES I. Diversity, distribution pattern and utilization of bamboos in Sikkim Bishnu Kumar Sharma1*, Musadiq Hussain Bhat2, Mufida Fayaz2, ... Bamboos are traditionally important in supplying housing, tools and other implements, musical instruments and other handicrafts (McClure 1966). The Himalayan mountains surround the northern, eastern and western borders of Sikkim. Sikkim University began operating in 2008 at Yangang, which is situated about 28 kilometres (17 mi) from Singtam. 100% Verified Properties. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It also runs a host of distance education programs in diverse fields.[151]. Sal (a type of hardwood), pandanus, palms, bamboos, ferns, and orchids are common in the subtropical forests found below about 5,000 feet (1,500 metres). [9], Modern Sikkim is a multiethnic and multilingual Indian state. Dwellings on the Himalayan slopes at Lachung, Sikkim, India. Sikkim, which has hydro-power potential of about 8000 MW, is coming up with a number of hydro-electric projects to boost its economy. Photo not … The Sikkim Herald is an official weekly publication of the government. Management: Management is the vital part of the broiler farming to achieve desired production. However, in October 2018, Pakyong Airport, the state's first airport, located at a distance of 30 km (19 mi) from Gangtok, became operational after a four-year delay. The final court in the judiciary system is the High Court at Gangtok, from which appeals may be made to the Supreme Court of India. [63] The Gangtok helipad is the only civilian helipad in the state. Tibet also acknowledged the special relationship of British India with the kingdom of Sikkim. [54] In north-western Sikkim, the peaks are frozen year-round;[60] because of the high altitude, temperatures in the mountains can drop to as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) in winter. Smart Cities. [50] For the most part, the land is unfit for agriculture because of the rocky, precipitous slopes. This is the first project in Sikkim where all structures are constructed with pile caisson foundations. [55], The hills of Sikkim mainly consist of gneiss and schist[56] which weather to produce generally poor and shallow brown clay soils. The public-private funded institution is the Sikkim Manipal University of Technological Sciences, which offers higher education in engineering, medicine and management. [12][13][14][15] It is also among India's most environmentally conscious states, having banned plastic water bottles "in any government functions and meetings" and polystyrene products (throughout the state). Constitution of the Board. Ravongla, Jorethang, Namchi and Yangyang are the subdivisions of the South district. But the traditional houses, as referred by Capt. Of the approximately 1,438 butterfly species found in the Indian subcontinent, 695 have been recorded in Sikkim. SIKKIM SAPCC – DRAFT REPORT Page 4 private sector (see Annexure 2 for the list of members). Settlement patterns. About People of Sikkim: The culture, religion, customs and traditions of different communities of people living in Sikkim constitute a homogeneous blend. Twenty-seven years later Assam was rattled by a massive earthquake in 1897 in which all the modern structures constructed by the British were damaged or destroyed. There is little lowland, and the variation in relief is extreme. In lower elevations are found juniper, pine, firs, cypresses and rhododendrons from the Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. The state government maintains 1,857 kilometres (1,154 mi) of roadways that do not fall under the BRO's jurisdiction.[109]. The party sent a plate of demands to the palace, including a demand for accession to India. The sex ratio is 889 females per 1,000 males, with a total of 321,661 males and 286,027 females recorded in 2011. He was not only mentioning the housing pattern alone but also the materials used for constructing that type of houses. Sikkim is also close to India's Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. [89][90], The opening of the Nathu La pass on 6 July 2006, connecting Lhasa, Tibet, to India, was billed as a boon for Sikkim's economy. The Indian Army has control over a large part of the state, as Sikkim forms part of a sensitive border area with China. [137], Beer, whiskey, rum and brandy are widely consumed in Sikkim,[138] as is tongba, a millet-based alcoholic beverage that is popular in Nepal and Darjeeling. use pattern of Gangtok town. The soil is coarse, with large concentrations of iron oxide; it ranges from neutral to acidic and is lacking in organic and mineral nutrients. [108], Sikkim's roads are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO), an offshoot of the Indian Army. A small fraction of Sikkim’s people belong to the Scheduled Castes (an official term designating those peoples who traditionally have occupied a low position within the Indian caste system). Provision scheme for the list of members ) of continuous rain in Sikkim. most notably, foods! 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